Email has been around for over fifty years, and in that time, it has fundamentally changed our everyday lives – and the world of business. Few things have had as much of an influence on the post-Internet world as email.
And, although it has wilted somewhat in the face of walled-garden social networks, it is still a vital technology. According to Pew Research, just 6% of teens exchange email on a regular basis, which is astounding when you think about it. Email is still important.
But let us discuss it without getting caught down in the details of technology. Forget about the finer points of SMTP and the distinctions between POP3 and IMAP. What’s more intriguing are the technical challenges that email encountered, as well as how email addresses became so important to our Internet identities. Here’s how email altered the course of history.
In the Years Before Email
The notion of personal computing was unimaginable in the 1950s and 1960s.
Computers were massive computers the size of industrial refrigerators. Large enterprises, colleges, and the military were the only entities that could afford to own them. As a result, the early email systems were built around these use cases.
Take, for example, the Automatic Digital Network (AUTODIN), a 1958 military project established by a collaboration of top corporations including IBM, RCA, and Western Union. It permitted users to transmit messages up to 3,000 characters long (about 280 words) to any of the network’s 1,350 terminals, the majority of which were located in the United States.
AUTODIN was designed to assist the Air Force with logistics. Spare components could be procured promptly when requirements occurred by enabling them to transmit signals to other Air Force locations (e.g., installations, logistics centers, and contractor sites). This was, in essence, the first electronic mail system, albeit it was not open to citizens.
That is why CTSS Mail was so crucial, since citizens utilized it. CTSS, rather than being a military initiative, enabled academics and researchers to communicate using a similar message-based system.
CTSS Mail sprang out of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965. (MIT).It was intended to operate on the Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) operating system, which was installed on a modified IBM 7094 mainframe system. Dozens of people would schedule time on the computer to work on it, thus the term “Time-Sharing” in CTSS.
There was no Github or Twitter in the 1960s. Researchers found it difficult to interact and communicate on the same topics and investigations. CTSS Mail, on the other hand, allowed users on the same system to leave messages for other users. As a consequence, computer historians consider it to be the first email application accessible to regular people.
What We Take for Granted
There were a myriad of email-like programs built to operate on the different mainframe and minicomputer systems available at the time in the years that followed AUTODIN and CTSS Mail, but they all suffered from the same problem: compatibility.
Today, I can send an email from my Macbook Pro to my editor in Philadelphia who is working on a Windows laptop – and we all take it for granted. However, in the 1960s, it was almost difficult to send an email from someone working on an IBM mainframe in New York to someone working on a NEC mainframe in Japan, owing to the absence of dispersed wide-area networks.
That all changed in the 1970s, with the establishment of ARPANET.
ARPANET was a tremendously significant network that has since been forgotten. In reality, it had many similarities with the Internet as we know it today, and it’s plausible that we wouldn’t even have an Internet if ARPANET hadn’t been. It employed packet switching to transport data between hosts and supported the TCP/IP protocol. It was exceedingly durable and fault tolerant.
It also enabled computers to communicate with machines on the opposite side of the nation. Researchers such as Ivan Sutherland (the man who basically developed augmented reality) could link his PDP-10 in Utah to his colleague’s SDS Sigma 7 in Los Angeles and exchange messages back and forth. It was a game changer.
The Very First Email Ever Sent
Ray Tomlinson died after a suspected heart attack in 2016. You may not care since you don’t know who he is, but you should. His legacy will go on for many years since Tomlinson is the reason we communicate the way we do now. He altered the course of interpersonal communication.
In 1971, Tomlinson transmitted the first email across a computer network, ARPANET, using a software he wrote called SNDMSG. We don’t know what the contents were, although Tomlinson previously remarked in an interview that the test email read “something like QWERTYUIOP.”
It was undoubtedly a technological milestone, but Tomlinson’s contribution was more than that. He is widely recognized for popularizing the @ sign, which is now an essential component of our contemporary language and society.
He is sometimes mistakenly credited with inventing the sign itself, although it was really existing on typewriters long before him. According to The New York Times, it was first used in a letter by an Italian trader in 1536. According to other estimates, it might be considerably older. The @ sign may also be seen in a Bulgarian translation of a Greek Christian encyclical, as shown above.
SNDMSG addresses were made up of the username and the destination’s hostname, separated by the now-infamous @ symbol. With the advent of the domain name system in the 1980s, these addresses grew to resemble the email addresses we use today.
Breaking Into the Mainstream
Email has slowly grown from a tool used by academics to a popular technology used by corporations and end-users alike in the years after Thompson’s development. It’s a communication channel as common as the telephone, and its phenomenal rise may be ascribed to services like CompuServe, Hotmail, and Gmail.
CompuServe established its initial email service in 1989. Users may access the Internet and exchange messages with other email users. Despite the fact that it was a costly proposition for the majority of consumers, it was a success. Access was charged by the hour, with 60 minutes costing as much as $10.
Because there was no World Wide Web (which would be established three years later by Tim Berners Lee), users could only communicate with one another using a software email client.
With the introduction of Hotmail in 1996, things really took off. This was a free service that let anybody to establish their own email addresses and access them using Web browsers. It was also one of the original webmail services, and it debuted with RocketMail, which ultimately became Yahoo! Mail.
It would draw about 8.5 million users in a year. That figure would be astounding even now, but it was unheard of in 1997. Microsoft would ultimately buy Hotmail for $500 million and transform it into Microsoft Outlook.
Although Hotmail originally dominated the industry, its influence has waned with the development of Gmail, which debuted in 2004. It was once only accessible as a private beta, making invite codes a prized item. Some have been reported to be sold on eBay for as much as $125. [Bad URL Removed].
Although email has fallen out of favor as the default communication medium of choice for individuals, owing to the meteoric emergence of Twitter and Facebook, it remains the foundation of how businesses operate, and both Google and Microsoft have corporate email capabilities.
The Problems of Email Security
Of course, it’s impossible to describe the history of email without mentioning its darker side. As its popularity grew, it was utilized as a weapon by fraudsters and organized criminals.
Many of the dangers have been addressed by email service providers. The majority of email providers aggressively screen out attachments depending on their file type, making it far more difficult for malware to propagate over email. Because of developments in heuristic analysis, most email providers are adept at detecting obfuscated malware, such as those camouflaged as document macros.
Despite this, email virus is a lucrative industry. In 2014, 317 million pieces of email malware were developed, according to Virtu. According to them, this is a 26% increase year over year.
Scammers also like to communicate through email. Email scams come in a variety of forms that vary greatly. Phishing is an example of a fraudulent email that attempts to convince the receiver to freely disclose the login credentials to their online banking, Paypal, or social networking account.
The Nigerian 419 scam is another common email fraud (also known as Advance Fee Fraud).These emails offer the victim a significant quantity of money in exchange for a part of it being paid in advance. Of course, the money never arrives, leaving the victim out of cash.
Fortunately, many email systems protect against these frequent hoaxes. Gmail, for example, may provide a warning if it suspects someone is attempting to spoof another firm through email.
While email remains a popular attack channel for thieves, it is becoming less successful as individuals become more aware of frequent email-based assaults. And it’s a tiny amount to pay for the added ease.
Email has had a profound impact on our lives. Do you have an email-related story to tell? Please tell me about it in the comments section below.
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