How to Create Dialog Boxes in Java

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How to Create Dialog Boxes in Java

A dialog box’s primary role is to allow an application or website to retrieve user input. That input might be an acknowledgement that they read a message or anything they type into a text field.

A dialog box grabs the user’s attention right away. It’s an excellent tool for gathering and showing vital information.

Java is a versatile programming language that has various classes for creating dialog windows. JOptionPane, JDialog, and JFrame are examples of these classes.

The JOptionPane Class

You may construct a typical dialog box by utilizing one of the JOptionPane class’s static methods. These are some examples:

  • showMessageDialog() is a function that displays a message to the user.
  • showConfirmDialog(), which displays a confirmation dialog.
  • showInputDialog() displays an input dialog to the user.
  • showOptionDialog(), which is a hybrid of the previous three techniques.

Creating a JOptionPane Dialog Box

import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JOptionPane;

public class JOptionPaneApp {
JOptionPaneApp() {
JFrame frame = new JFrame();
JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(frame, "This is a JOptionPane message window.");
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
new JOptionPaneApp();
}
}

The code above creates the following dialog box:

Although JOptionPane includes basic dialog boxes, it also contains a plethora of options that enable you to customize its behavior. The message dialog, for example, might be of numerous forms. The sample above is an INFORMATION MESSAGE, which is the default. Other message kinds include:

  • ERROR_MESSAGE
  • WARNING_MESSAGE
  • QUESTION_MESSAGE
  • PLAIN_MESSAGE

Creating an Error Message

Here’s an example of using a different message type in your JOptionPane dialog:

JOptionPane.showMessageDialog(frame, "This is a JOptionPane error message window.",
"Error", JOptionPane.ERROR_MESSAGE);

If you replace the showMessageDialog() line in the original application with the code above, you’ll see the following error dialog:

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The JDialog Class

Custom dialog boxes may be created using the JDialog class. This Java class extends the Dialog class and is part of the javax.swing package. It has access to several direct and indirect techniques. There are a total of 16 Java constructors in this Java class.

Aside from the default constructor, each of the 15 others accepts a frame, a window, or a dialog as well as a number of additional parameters.

The primary JDialog Constructors include:

  • JDialog() generates a dialog box that lacks a frame, title, and mode.
  • JDialog(Dialog owner, String title, boolean modal) constructs a dialog box from a Dialog owner, a string title, and a mode.
  • JDialog(Frame owner, String title, boolean modal) constructs a dialog box from a Frame owner, a string title, and a mode.
  • JDialog(Window owner, String title, boolean modal) constructs a dialog box with a Window owner, a string title, and a mode.

Creating a JDialog Dialog Box

import java.awt.FlowLayout;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import javax.swing.JButton;
import javax.swing.JDialog;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JLabel;
import javax.swing.WindowConstants;

public class JDialogApp {
JDialogApp() {
JFrame frame = new JFrame();
JDialog dialog = new JDialog(frame, true);
dialog.setLayout(new FlowLayout());

JLabel displayText = new JLabel("This is a JDialog window.");
JButton btn = new JButton("OK");

btn.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
dialog.setVisible(false);
}
});

dialog.add(displayText);
dialog.add(btn);

dialog.setSize(200,150);
dialog.setTitle("Dialog Window");
dialog.setVisible(true);
dialog.setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE);
}

public static void main(String args[]) {
new JDialogApp();
}
}

The code above creates the following dialog box:

There are numerous key components of the code that you should be aware of. The software calls the JDialog(Frame owner, Boolean modal) constructor, passing a JFrame and the value “true” as parameters. The JFrame owns the JDialog, which implies it is in charge of showing the dialog box. When the “true” parameter is set, the dialog restricts input to other connected windows.

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The constructor in the above code does not accept a title as a parameter. The frame owner, on the other hand, need a title. So, for that operation, you may utilize the setTitle() function of the Dialog class, which JDialog implements. SetVisible(), setSize(), and setDefaultCloseOperation() are other significant methods in the code ().

setVisible accepts a Boolean value and is in charge of showing the frame. setSize returns the dialog window’s height and width. setDefaultCloseOperation accepts one of three values to determine what occurs when the dialog is closed by the user.

The JFrame Class

JDialog and JOptionPane both build dialog boxes using the JFrame class. The JFrame class, on the other hand, may generate dialog boxes on its own. The JFrame class is an extension of the Frame class that, like the JDialog class, enables you to construct bespoke dialog boxes.

JFrame includes four constructors and various direct and indirect methods for creating dialog boxes.

Creating a JFrame Dialog Box

import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;

import javax.swing.JButton;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JLabel;
import javax.swing.JPanel;
import javax.swing.WindowConstants;

public class JFrameApp {
JFrameApp() {
JFrame frame = new JFrame();
frame.setTitle("Dialog Window");
JPanel panel = new JPanel();

JLabel displayText = new JLabel("This is a JFrame window.");
panel.add(displayText);
JButton btn = new JButton("OK Button");

btn.addActionListener(new ActionListener() {
public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
frame.setVisible(false);
}
});

panel.add(btn);

frame.add(panel);
frame.setDefaultCloseOperation(WindowConstants.EXIT_ON_CLOSE);
frame.setSize(250, 150);
frame.setVisible(true);
}

public static void main(String[] args) {
new JFrameApp();
}
}

The code above creates the following dialog box:

The code uses the normal JFrame constructor as well as other well-known functions, such as the setTitle() method (used in the JDialog app above).The JPanel, which is a generic container, is an unknown item in the preceding application. This allows JFrame to add numerous layouts and components to a frame.

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The ActionListener() and actionPerformed() functions handle the OK button click event.

Which Java Class Is Best for Creating Dialog Boxes?

The JOptionPane class exists just to simplify the process of creating dialog boxes more straightforward for Java developers. If you require a more customized dialog box, the JDialog class is your best bet.

The JFrame class provides UIs, but it may also be used to construct many other GUI components, such as dialog boxes.

The JFrame-created dialog box has a minimized icon, but the others do not. If you need a modal dialog box that the user must interact with before finishing a job, JFrame is not the ideal solution.

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